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The Distribution of Faculty Ranks by Institutional Type, Size, and Control, 1960-61

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47
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AAUP Bulletin
DOI:
10.2307/40222674
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September, 1961
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The Distribution of Faculty Ranks by Institutional Type, Size, and Control, 1960-61
Author(s): W. Robert Bokelman and Louis A. D'Amico
Source: AAUP Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Sep., 1961), pp. 242-246
Published by: American Association of University Professors
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The Distribution of Faculty Ranks
by Institutional Type, Si2e, and Control,
1960-61

By W. ROBERT BOKELMAN AND LOUIS A. D'AMICO
Inasmuch as data on over 117,000 full-time faculty
members in undergraduate four-year colleges, medical and

related schools, and other professional and graduate
schools are available from Higher Education Planning and
Management Data, 1960-61 / an analysis of the distribution of faculty ranks of such a considerable number of
full-time faculty members should provide meaningful information to those interested in faculty staffing organiza-

tion in our colleges and universities. Specifically, this report deals with the following questions: (1) To what extent are there differences in the rank distribution of faculty

on 9-10-month contracts and those on 11-12-month con-

tracts? (2) To what extent are there differences in the
rank distributions of faculty in large and in small institutions? (3) To what extent are there difference; s in the rank

Comparison of Rank Distributions by Type of
Undergraduate Four-year College or University
The percentage distribution of faculty members on
9-10-month contracts in undergraduate four-year colleges

and universities (see Table 1) shows that the total representation of the two highest ranks combined, professor
and associate professor, was 47.9 per cent in public institutions and 50.5 per cent in private institutions. In both
public and private institutions the assistant professor rank

had the highest percentage incidence of the four ranks,
totaling 33.5 per cent in public and 29.7 per cent in private. Private institutions had a higher proportion of their
total faculty in the full professor and instructor ranks than

did public institutions.

distributions of faculty in undergraduate four-year col-

A comparison of 9-10-month faculty by institutional

leges, in medical and related schools, and in other professional and graduate schools? (4) To what extent are there

type reveals that in public institutions, university colleges,

differences in the rank distribution of faculty in public
and in privately controlled institutions ?

proportion of their faculty in the assistant professor rank,

The report, Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1960-61,* is based on responses from 310 public and 753 private institutions, not including junior col-

stitutions, however, full professors in university colleges

had the highest percentage, 31.4 per cent, for any rank.
(Private teachers colleges were excluded because of the

leges. These responses comprise 85.2 per cent of the pub-

small number of faculty included.)

lic and 73.8 per cent of the private institutions offering a
minimum four-year program or better; and enrollment-

month contracts, 59.4 per cent of those in public and 55.6

liberal arts colleges, and teachers colleges had the highest

30.0, 38.8, and 37.0 per cent, respectively. In private in-

For faculty in undergraduate institutions on 11- 12-

wise, the responses represent 93.1 per cent of the public
and 83.2 per cent of the private enrollments of the Nation

per cent of those in private institutions occupied the two

during 1960-61. Three tables are presented here to document the rank distributions of full-time faculty members
in undergraduate colleges of universities, liberal arts colleges, teachers colleges, medical and related schools, and

doubtedly, factors that contribute to the higher propor-

other professional and graduate schools.
1 Bokelman, W. Robert, Higher Education Planning and Man-

agement Data, 19dO-61. OE-53010, Circular No. 651. U. S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1961. 91 pp.
* Ibid.

W. ROBERT BOKELMAN is Chief, Business Administration

highest ranks, professor and associate professor. Untions of faculty on 11-12-month contracts in these two
ranks (as contrasted to 9-10-month faculty) are interrelated: departmental chairmanships or headships, entailing year-round responsibility, usually carry a full professorship; many institutions adhere to the "rank has its
privileges" adage, giving their limited 11-12-month contracts to the upper ranks; and experience with instruction
and research makes the upper two ranks more needed on

Section, and LOUIS A. UAMICO is Specialist for Business

a year-round basis. It is interesting to note that for faculty
on 11- 12-month contracts, the percentages of professors

Office of Education.

and associate professors in public institutions were higher,

Administration, Division of Higher Education, United States

242

AAUP

BULLETIN

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Table 1 - Number and Percentage of Faculty in Undergraduate University Colleges, Liberal Arts Colleges, and Teachers
Colleges by Rank, Length of Contract, and Institutional Control, 1960-61
9- 10-Month Contracts 11- 12-Month Contracts

Type Number g £8^8 8 8 2 8 3 8 o

Undergraduate *nd 8 a|3 8 2 8 2 - 8 *3 § S 3 *

Undergraduate Institution Percentage «g & 8^ lg 1 2 - I 1 & 8 *3 I 2 Ii 3 | * I

University Number 6673 6154 7454 4602 24,883 3233 2548 2540 1122 9443
Colleges

Liberal Arts Number 1918 2272 3849 1889 9928 322 267 296 225 1110

Colleges
Teachers

Colleges
^ ^ .

^ lotaA ^

University Number 3292 2414 2895 1896 10,497 618 475 459 156 1708
Colleges Percentage 31.4 23.0 27.6 18.0 100.0 36.2 27.8 26.9 9.1 1000
Liberal Arts Number 4511 4364 5657 3828 18,360 837 733 923 560 3053

Colleges
Teachers

Colleges
^

.

.

^ iotai

Source of data: Bokelman, W. Robert, Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1960-61, OE-53010, Circular No. 651 (In
process). Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1961. 91 pp.

respectively, than the percentages for their counterparts

Table 2. For the 45,572 faculty members on 9-10-month

in private institutions, but the percentages of assistant
professors and instructors were lower for public institu-

contracts in public institutions, there was a positive rela-

tions.

institutional size - the higher the percentage of full profes-

tionship between the percentage of full professors and the

Each of the three types of public institutions had the

sors, the larger the enrollment category - with the range

highest percentage of 11-12-month faculty in the professor

varying from 14.5 per cent in institutions with less than

rank, varying from 29.0 per cent in liberal arts colleges to

500 students to 26.5 per cent in institutions with 10,000
and more students. With the exception of associate profes-

34.2 per cent in university colleges. By comparison, in
private institutions the 11-12-month faculty in university

sors in public institutions with less than 500 students, the

colleges had 36.2 per cent in the full-professor rank, high-

percentage of faculty in this rank showed very little varia-

est percentage for either private or public institutions, but

tion with institutional size, remaining fairly constant at

private liberal arts colleges had the highest percentage of
their 11-12 month faculty, 30.2, in the assistant professor
rank. It should be noted that of the faculty on 11-12-

approximately the 25.0 per cent level. However, for assist-

ant professors and instructors in public institutions (with

month contracts at the instructor level (again excluding

the exception of institutions with under 500 students),
there was with minor fluctuations a negative relationship

private teachers colleges), public university colleges and
liberal arts colleges had higher percentage representation

between the percentage of faculty in each of these ranks
and the size of enrollment. For assistant professors, the

than did their private counterparts.

percentages ranged from 38.4 per cent for those in institu-

Comparison of Rank Distributions by Size of
Undergraduate Four-year College or University
In comparing faculty rank distribution by institutional
size, it should be borne in mind that such a comparison is

tions with 500-999 students to 31.1 per cent for those in
institutions with 10,000 and more students. Percentages

for instructors ranged from 20.0 per cent for those in
institutions with 500-999 students to 17.8 per cent for
those in institutions with 10,000 and more students.

not necessarily equitable. Where an individual may be

For the 28,898 faculty members on 9-10-month con-

able to obtain the rank of associate or assistant professor

tracts in private institutions, the range in percentage of

in a small institution, he may be able to obtain only the

full professors by institutional size was from 25.0 per cent

rank of assistant professor or instructor, respectively, in a

in institutions with less than 500 students to 33.1 per cent

in those with 10,000 and more students. Although the

larger institution.

The distribution of rank of faculty members in public

percentage of full professors in private institutions tended

and private institutions by size of institution is shown in

to show a similar relationship to institutional size as was

AUTUMN

1961

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243

Table 2 - Number and Percentage of Faculty in Undergraduate Four-year Institutions by Rank, Length of Contract, Institutional Size, and Control, 1960-61

Size Number g « g +j u % o^o^o®

of and 8 • 22 8 Sgo 8-28 2 8 |j

Institution Percentage £ 8<S !*§ I - *§ 3*8 1*3 S |
Public

Institutions

~ . _nA Number 20 18 32 68 138 7 17 26 33 83
ceiow ?uu _nA

Number 244 342 540 281 1407 67 41 62 37 207

300-999

mnA^on Number 1331 1631 2234 1198 6394 290 233 311 208 1042

mnA^on 1UUU-Z499

<><nnjoaa Number 1715 1943 2588 1672 8318 735 590 623 320 2268

<><nnjoaa ,ouu-4yyy
<nnnfiOfto

5000-9999 <nnnfiOfto
in*™* &

10,000 in*™* & more Percentage 26.5 24.6 31.1 17.8 100.0 33.8 26.2 27.2 12.8 100.0

T iotai . , Number 10,703 11,107 15,287 8475 45,572 4044 3180 3291 1652 12,167
T iotai ,

__^

"TT~7I

__^

ceiow ?uu

*nn ooo Number 1470 1337 1659 1140 5606 368 317 356 237 1278

*uu"*w *nn ooo

mnn-^oo iuuo-i4yy Number 2200 2049 2686 1803 8738 235 199 297 190 921

mnn-^oo iuuo-i4yy

9snn aqqq Number 707 616 716 560 2599 145 151 206 115 617

zjuu-qyyy 9snn

wvv'jjyy snnn oooo Number 1333 1207 1676 928 5144 265 215 195 92 767

wvv'jjyy snnn oooo

innnn^m^ & Number 1597 1108 1220 896 4821 332 231 212 39 814

innnn^m^ iu,uuu & more Percentage 33.1 23.0 25.3 18.6 100.0 40.8 28.4 26.0 4.8 100.0
T_. OiaA , Number 7804 6785 8571 5738 28,898 1467 1217 1404 735 4823

OiaA ,
Source of data: Bokelman, W. Robert, Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1960-61, OE-53010, Circular Number 651
(In process). Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1961. 91 pp.

noted in public institutions, in each of the enrollment
categories the percentage of full professors in private
institutions was larger than in public institutions. As was
found for associate professors in public institutions, the
percentage of this rank in private institutions remained
relatively constant at approximately the 23.0 per cent level

among the various institutional sizes. For assistant profes-

For faculty on 11-12-month contracts in public and in
private institutions, there was not the same correlation

between percentage of full professor rank and institutional size that was found for full professors on 9-10month contracts. However, in both public and private
institutions, the largest percentages of full professors were

shown for institutions in the 5000-9999 and the 10,000-

sors in private institutions, there was a wide fluctuation

and-more enrollment categories. It will be noted that

in representation by institutional size; the lowest percent-

private institutions with 10,000 and more students had
40.8 per cent of their faculty in the full professor rank.
In addition, this enrollment category of private institu-

age, 25.3 per cent, was found in institutions with 10,000

and more students, and the highest percentage, 32.6 per
cent, in institutions with 5000-9999 students.' Interestingly,

with the exception of the below 500 enrollment category,

tions had a minimal percentage (4.8 per cent) of faculty

in the instructor rank.

the percentage of assistant professors in private institutions was considerably lower for each enrollment category

than the corresponding percentage in public institutions.
At the instructor level in private institutions, there was a
tendency for percentage of faculty in this rank to be

negatively related to institutional size, as was similarly
observed for public institutions (those with less than 500
students excepted) .
244

AAUP

Comparison of Rank Distributions in Medical and
Related and in Professional and Other Graduate
Schools

An examination of Table 3 shows that for institutional
medical and related faculty, public and private combined,
those who were on 11- 12-month contracts outnumbered

those on 9-10-month contracts by over 6 to 1 (7722 vs.
BULLETIN

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Table 3 - Number and Percentage of Faculty in Medical and Related and in Professional and Other Graduate Schools
by Rank, Length of Contract, Public and Private Institutions Combined, 1960-61
Public and Private Combined

9-10-Month Contracts 11-12-Month Contracts
Type

or

and

o

Number

^o

co

2

o-goco.8

School Percentage § *n ?) S« 3 ~. S'OBSS s -

__

Medicine Number 80 45 85 28 238 949 908 1225 756 3838

Clinical

Medicine Number 110 89 87 50 336 553 512 628 287 1980

Preclinical

rw.Vrv Number 41 33 33 21 128 239 170 189 155 753
cnu5try

Veterinary Number 8 6 11 3 28 162 123 104 117 506
Medicine

Pharmarv Number 91 93 95 52 331 61 70 53 22 206

rnarmacy Pharmarv

Nu™W Number 12 26 66 83 187 26 65 171 177 439
g

T t 1 Number 342 292 377 237 1248 1990 1848 2370 1514 7722
L Number 645 161 141 21 968 106 30 39 6 181

Theolo^v Number 283 130 123 75 611 351 152 132 67 702
EninWfiW Number 2485 2434 2431 1786 9136 771 447 490 244 1952
6 »

Fine Arts Number 108 165 124 118 515 8 3 2 7 20
Social Work Number 62 109 93 27 291 14 23 27 6 70
Other Grad. Number 490 308 294 121 1213 191 138 142 123 594
Colleges

T t i Number 4073 3307 3206 2148 12,734 1441 793 832 453 3519

Source of data: Bokelman, W. Robert, Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1960-61, OE-53010, Circular Number 651
(In process). Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1961, 91 pp.

1248). However, the total rank distribution of medical
and related faculty on 9-10-month contracts shows percentages comparable to those for faculty on 11-12-month
contracts. Whereas, omitting nursing schools, the percentages of 9-10-month faculty in the two upper ranks
(full professor and associate professor) varied from 50.0
for schools of veterinary medicine to 59.2 for preclinical
medicine, the corresponding percentages for 11- 12-month
faculty of these two ranks varied from 48.4 for clinical
medicine to 63.6 for pharmacy. Nursing faculty on both
9-10- and 11-12-month contracts had slightly over 20.0

per cent of their total in the full professor and the associate professor ranks, respectively.
For the combined public and private institutional faculty

in professional and other graduate schools, unlike the

contracts, the percentage of full professors among total
faculty was considerably higher than that for any other
faculty rank. With the exception of faculty in engineering

and fine arts on 9-10-month contracts, and of faculty in
social work on 11-12-month contracts, the percentage total

for professional and graduate full professors and associate

professors was in each case over 55.0 per cent. The range
of the combined percentage of full professors and associate

professors on 9-10-month contracts varied from 53.0 for
those in fine arts to 83.2 per cent for those in law (66.6

per cent of 9-10-month law faculty occupied the full
professor rank). For faculty on 11-12-month contracts,
the combined percentage of full professors and associate
professors varied from 52.9 per cent for those in schools
of social work to 75.2 per cent for those in law schools.
Conclusions

medical and related school faculty, the number on 9-10month contracts was almost four times larger than the

In reference to the questions raised at the beginning of

number on 11- 12-month contracts (12,734 vs. 3419).

this report, an analysis of the data provides the following

For this faculty group on 9-10-month or 11-12-month

answers:

AUTUMN

1961

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245

1. In undergraduate colleges of universities, liberal arts

500 and 500-999 students, dipped to the 47.1 and 48.0

month contracts was 11.5 percentage points higher in pub-

per cent level in institutions with 1000-2499 and 25004999 students, and rose to 62.6 and 69.2 in institutions
with 5000-9999 and 10,000 and more students, respec-

lic institutions and 5.1 percentage points higher in private

tively.

colleges, and teachers colleges, the combined percentage

of full professors and associate professors on 11- 12-

institutions than the corresponding percentages for full

professors and associate professors on 9- 10-month contracts. In medical and related schools, however, the com-

3. A comparison of the distribution of faculty ranks
in undergraduate four-year colleges and universities, medi-

bined percentage of the two upper faculty ranks on 11-12-

cal and related schools, and professional and other graduate schools reveals that for 9-10-month contract faculty,

month contracts was 1.1 percentage points lower than the

the assistant professor rank had the highest percentage of

percentage for full professors and associate professors on
9- 10-month contracts. In professional and other graduate

total faculty in undergraduate four-year colleges and universities and in medical and related schools, but the full

schools, the combined percentage for full prbfessors and
associate professors on 11- 12 -month contracts was 5.5

professor rank had the highest percentage in professional
and other graduate schools. For faculty on 11-12-month

points higher than the corresponding percentage for those
on 9-10-month contracts.

year colleges and universities and in professional and other

2. For the six enrollment categories ranging from below

graduate schools had the highest percentage of representa-

500 to 10,000 and more, the combined percentage for full

professors and associate professors on 9- 10-month contracts increased in almost direct ratio to enrollment, from
27.5 to 51.1 per cent in public and from 48.5 to 56.1 per
cent in private institutions. In public institutions the com-

bined percentage of full professors and associate professors on 11-12-month contracts was correlated, with some

fluctuation, with institutional size: those in institutions
with 2500-4999, 5000-9999, and 10,000 and more students
comprised percentages of total respective faculties of 58.4,

63.2, and 60.0; those in institutions with below 500,
500-999, and 1000-2499 comprised percentages of respec-

tive faculties of 28.9, 52.2, and 50.2. In private institu-

contracts, the full professor rank in undergraduate four-

tion, but the assistant professor rank had the highest
representation for medical and related schools.
4. For faculty on 9- 10-month contracts, those in public
institutions had higher representation than those in private institutions at the associate professor and assistant

professor level. On the other hand, professors and instructors in private institutions had higher representation

of total faculty than did their counterparts in public institutions. For faculty on 11- 12-month contracts (exclud-

ing those in medical and related schools and in profes-

sional and other graduate schools), the percentages of
full professors and of associate professors in public institu-

tions were larger than the corresponding percentages in
private institutions; assistant professors and instructors in

tions the combined percentage of full professors and as-

private institutions, on the other hand, constituted larger

sociate professors on 11- 12-month contracts was at the

percentages of total faculty than did their counterparts in

53.0 and 53.6 per cent level in institutions with below

public institutions.

. . . so there were committees
So there were committees.

One on, "What is Man?"

And one on, "What is Grass?"
And, "How is it better than Manna?"
And, "The Validity or Invalidity of Faith as a Basic Force in the Constitu-

tion of a (Hypothetical) Universe,"
And thirteen other committees on equally pertinent phases of universe-building,

With subcommittees, very naturally, to work out tentative solutions for each

separate subproblem
To make recommendations to the full committees,

To make recommendations to the heavenly host.

From "How the World Was Not Created," Bulletin, Summer, 1953, pp.
257-258.

246

AAUP

BULLETIN

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